Togo by Samuel Decalo

By Samuel Decalo

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T. H. Unwin 50 The Yemens, G. Rex Smith 51 Zambia, Anne M. Bliss and J. A. Rigg 52 Puerto Rico, Elena E. Cevallos 53 Namibia, Stanley Schoeman and Elna Schoeman 54 Tanzania, Colin Darch 55 Jordan, Ian J. Seccombe 56 Kuwait, Frank A. Clements 57 Brazil, Solena V. , C. H. , Graham J. Shields 61 Atlantic Ocean, H. G. R. King 62 Canada, Ernest Ingles 63 Cameroon, Mark W. DeLancey and Peter J. Schraeder 64 Malta, John Richard Thackrah 65 Thailand, Michael Watts 66 Austria, Denys Salt with the assistance of Arthur Farrand Radley 67 Norway, Leland B.

As a fiscal conservative Olympio succeeded in balancing Togo's budget from local resources, including a plethora of taxes and austerity measures that antagonized many groups, including the Ewe who had originally supported the CUT. His clashes with Nkrumah led to the closure of the Ghanaian border, damaging the livelihood of Lomé's traders, while his friction with Lomé's Archbishop alienated him from a segment of the Ewe intellectual elite. Olympio's austerity policies and anti-military stances finally led to the 1963 ex-servicemen confrontation and coup, and his cold-blooded murder by Eyadema.

Eyadema, like Mobutu, came to be referred to as one of Africa's 'dinosaurs' whose time of eclipse had long since gone. The Eyadema era Eyadema's years in power fall into several distinct phases: the period up until 1969 during which he was sensitive to his extra-legal status in a hostile Ewe environment, and strove to project an image of a societal 'honest broker'; followed by the period of 1969-1980, during which, aided by increased state revenues from booming phosphate exports and a generally improved economy, the regime felt secure enough to move toward a dialogue with allies within the newly-created single party, the Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais.

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