By Wolfram Schnabel
The 1st a part of the booklet bargains with the interplay of polymers with non-ionizing radiation within the frequency-range from sub-terahertz over infrared radiation to obvious and ultraviolet mild, whereas the second one half covers the interplay with ionizing radiation from the extraordinary ultraviolet to X-ray photons. as a result, the e-book offers a scientific review of ways either the non-ionizing and the ionizing radiation can be utilized for various polymerization methods, spectroscopy equipment and lithography ideas. The lined functions comprise curing of coatings and adhesives, xerography, light-emitting diodes, lasers, wave courses, high-capacity info garage in addition to sensors and catalysts.
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The 1st a part of the e-book bargains with the interplay of polymers with non-ionizing radiation within the frequency-range from sub-terahertz over infrared radiation to seen and ultraviolet gentle, whereas the second one half covers the interplay with ionizing radiation from the extraordinary ultraviolet to X-ray photons.
Extra info for Polymers and Electromagnetic Radiation: Fundamentals and Practical Applications
If a substrate is to be plasma-modiﬁed, then photochemical processes must also be taken into account. 15), which makes the plasma visible (via glow discharge). MÃ ! M þ h n ð1:15Þ To some extent, photons possessing energies corresponding to the UV range are likely to be absorbed by the substrate, thus initiating photochemical reactions. Plasma-induced intermolecular crosslinking and main-chain cleavage, as occurs in the case of substrates consisting of linear polymers, are thought to result from such photochemical processes.
7. The process starts with a microlithographic step structuring a thin ﬁlm on top of the wafer; this ﬁlm, which most often consists of a plasma-resistant polymer (the polymer resist) is then subjected to a beam of light, X-rays or swift particles (electrons or ions). The subsequent development of latent structures, generated in this way, with appropriate liquids yields a pattern of covered and uncovered areas on the wafer. After liquid development, trenches and holes at places not covered by the resist are then formed when the wafer is subjected to a speciﬁc plasma.
However, it is clear that sub-THz radiations – and especially microwaves – can serve as a tool for rapid and efﬁcient heating, with no further inﬂuence on most reactions . While the present discussion on non-thermal chemical reactions induced by the direct speciﬁc action of sub-THz radiation is ongoing, it is well known that nonthermal reactions can also be initiated indirectly via plasmas generated by the same radiation. In fact, plasma-assisted chemistry is strongly related to the ﬁeld of polymers, and its importance and major potential for industrial applications are described in the following subsections.