By Goerg H. Michler
There are many books on electron microscopy, even though, the learn of polymers utilizing EM necessitates targeted recommendations, precautions and instruction tools, together with ultramicrotomy. This ebook discusses the final features of many of the suggestions of EM, together with scanning strength microscopy (AFM). the applying of those suggestions to the research of morphology and homes, relatively micromechanical houses, is defined intimately. Examples from all periods of polymers are presented.
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Extra resources for Electron Microscopy of Polymers
References 1. Keller A () In: Growth and perfection of crystals (Proc Int Conf Crystal Growth, Cooperstown, NY). Wiley, New York, pp 2. Bassett DC, Frank FC, Keller A () Philos Mag : 3. Glauert AM (–) Practical methods in electron microscopy, vols –. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam 4. Bethge H, Heydenreich J (eds) () Electron microscopy in solid state physics. Elsevier, Amsterdam 5. Williams DB, Carter CB () Transmission electron microscopy: a textbook for materials science.
In this context the Ω-ﬁlter introduced by Rose and Plies in was a milestone in the development of the energy-ﬁlter TEM (EFTEM). Furthermore, the development of STEM was an especially important milestone in the evolution of analytical electron microscopy. Crewe et al. presented a high-resolution STEM based on the ﬁrst major use of a ﬁeldemission gun in . The ﬁrst basic study of the mechanism of image formation in the STEM was carried out by Thomson and Zeitler in , and Crewe presented images of single atoms obtained by Z-contrast in the same year.
Since a very good vacuum is not needed in all parts of the microscope, the present trend is towards a localised higher and cleaner vacuum of about − Pa, as provided by sputter ion pumps, in the specimen chamber to reduce the contamination of the sample and in the electron source chamber for operating LaB sources or ﬁeld-emission sources. In addition to the action of the vacuum pumps, the vacuum around the specimen is usually improved by applying an internally supplied cryo pump in the form of metal parts close to the specimen that are cooled by liquid nitrogen.