By Alp Caner, Polat Gülkan, Khaled Mahmoud
The e-book comprises peer-reviewed contributions chosen from shows given on the Istanbul Bridge convention 2014, held from August eleven – thirteen in Istanbul, Turkey. It studies at the present demanding situations in bridge engineering confronted through execs worldwide, giving a different emphasis to lately built thoughts, recommendations and possibilities. The booklet covers key issues within the box, together with modeling and research tools; development and erection suggestions; layout for severe occasions and review and structural future health tracking. there's a balanced presentation of concept, examine and perform. This e-book, which gives the readers with a complete and well timed reference consultant on present practices in bridge engineering, is meant for pros, educational researchers and scholars alike.
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Extra info for Developments in International Bridge Engineering: Selected Papers from Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014
Overall, for J. Martins et al. 36 short bridges, the load model of EC1-2  leads to similar values as the probabilistic model with a braking probability of 10−8, whereas for long bridges a braking probability of almost 10−6 reproduces more adequately the loading level of the code. These values of β correspond to initiating a braking event applying full brakes on average once in 1,000,000 and 10,000 km travelled, respectively. Also, if β is smaller than 10−8, all the values of the braking force given by the current load model have a return period larger than 1000 years.
This yields loading levels with different probabilities of exceedance, which are grouped into “design scenarios”. g. in “Eurocode—Basis of structural design” (EC0) . In Merzenich and Sedlacek’s  background studies of “Eurocode 1: Actions on structures—Part 2: Traffic loads on bridges” (EC1-2) , the characteristic values of vertical traffic loads were calibrated for a 1000-year return period. The partial safety factor method of checking the structural safety of structures for a certain design scenario has, therefore, a semi-probabilistic nature.
The magnitude of the maximum braking force transmitted to the pavement Fb max was estimated by Newton’s laws of motion: N Fb max = m · max t ai (t) (1) i=1 where m is the mass of the vehicles, which was assumed equal for all vehicles, N is the number of vehicles, and ai(t) is the deceleration over time t of the ith vehicle. 1 using the measured data from convoys with initial speeds of 30 and 60 km/h and m = 15 t. Figure 1 also shows that the maximum braking force of the load model adopted by the revision J.