By Marica De Vincenzi, Vincenzo Lombardo (auth.), Marica De Vincenzi, Vincenzo Lombardo (eds.)
Recent reviews in psycho linguistics have ranged via quite a few languages. during this pattern, which has no precedent, experiences in language processing have experiences in language acquisition and theoretical linguistics in contemplating language universals in a broader scope than in simple terms in English. because the starting of the century, experiences in language acquisition have produced an unlimited physique of knowledge from a couple of Indoeuropean languages, and the emphasis at the common has preceded the emphasis at the specific (see (Slobin 1985) for a review). these days, the learn within the box advances via a continual linking among the cross-linguistic uniformities and the person language impacts on improvement. the extent of language universals is regularly sophisticated because the facts from a couple of languages give a contribution to the elaboration of a extra distinct photograph of the language of youngsters. the 1st cross-linguistic reviews in theoretical linguistics seemed on the finish of the seventies. in the Chomskian paradigm, the connection with the Romance languages triggered a shift from a rule-based towards a principle-based formalism (Chomsky 1981, 1995); inside replacement theories, the decreased prominence of the natural word constitution part in prefer of the lexicon and/or the practical kinfolk (see, e.g., Lexical sensible Grammar (Bresnan 1982), Relational Grammar (Perlmutter 1983)) sought empirical help in languages showing deep structural adjustments with admire to English (e.g. Bantu, Malayalam, Romance and Slavic languages Warlpiri). The M. De Vincenzi and V. Lombardo (eds.), Cross-linguistic views on Language Processing, 1-19.
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Extra info for Cross-Linguistic Perspectives on Language Processing
If RALR is defeasible by a very weak Late Closure tendency, then RALR can't be very forceful either, in which case exceptions to RALR are of little interest. We will argue now that this is not the appropriate conclusion to draw from examples like (6) - (8). 7. 8 This involves attachment of a relative 32 FODOR AND INOUE clause to either a higher or a lower NP node, where the two sites are separated by one PP node, as in (9a). And this construction (9b) shows only a marginal LC bias for English as well.
There is an obligatory site in (8) for a finite clause at the matrix level, a site that the parser could anticipate well in advance, and that requires no revision; yet (until the disambiguation by them) the parser is oblivious to it. To sum up: English offers a number of examples in which revision of the first-pass analysis is not treated by the parser as if it were a last resort option. It appears that what is paramount for the parser, at least in these contexts, is low attachment; to achieve it, the parser is prepared to undo its earlier work and reattach prior material.
Is there any pressure in natural language toward high attachment? If so, does this pressure fall under Minimal Everything, ultimately due to Attach Quickly? We consider below some different answers to these questions. Though it is too early to be sure, we think there is reason to believe that high attachment is favored in some contexts by a preference for balanced tree structures in which sister constituents are of roughly equal 'weight', and that this taste for balanced phrases is due to the needs of prosodic phrasing rather than to any syntactic preference principle.