Cool thermodynamics : the engineering and physics of by Jeffrey M. Gordon

By Jeffrey M. Gordon

This ebook is aimed at these drawn to the engineering and physics of airconditioning and refrigeration units (chillers). Analytic thermodynamic versions are built for a large choice of cooling structures and a wide diversity of working stipulations. those types are simply carried out within the box or laboratory. even though the authors concentration upon mechanical (electrically-driven) chillers - basically reciprocating and centrifugal machines - there's additionally giant fabric on heat-driven absorption chillers. warmth pumps and warmth transformers also are addressed. a couple of much less universal chiller varieties also are taken care of, corresponding to thermoelectric, thermoacoustic and vortex-tube devices. the fabric is gifted in a way which may attract either the engineer and the physicist, and will shape a bridge among the 2 groups of their research and presentation of cooling structures. In each one bankruptcy, the authors try and seize the fundamental physics of the matter, and to emerge with quantitatively actual predictive and diagnostic instruments. they target for easy thermodynamic versions the place the sensible dependences of chiller functionality at the significant working variables are obvious. And all of the versions offered are required to face the attempt of comparability opposed to experimental functionality facts. The reader is proven how chillers will be considered as input-output units, considered from the surface and probed with basically externally-measurable parameters comparable to strength enter, cooling price and coolant temperatures. measurable parameters similar to strength enter, cooling cost and coolant temperatures. the kind of details wanted by means of chiller brands and builders in designing and assembling new designs is alsoprovided. How will a given amendment in a chiller part impact potency and cooling cost? what's the mixture of working stipulations of the person parts that maximizes chiller potency at a required cooling price? the various chapters can function an industry-oriented direction adapted to cooling engineers. The booklet may also represent a part of a college direction on cooling structures. Sections of the ebook could be incorporated in introductory and complicated thermodynamics classes. either engineering-oriented and physics-oriented issues are lined in lots of the chapters. greater than a dozen educational examples are included.

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The big advantage of absorption systems is that a liquid is compressed instead of a vapor. Hence compression work is negligible in absorption systems, whereas it is typically 20–50% of the rated cooling capacity in vapor-compression devices. The nominal virtues of heatdriven systems (as opposed to mechanical work-driven systems) are offset, however, by: (1) a markedly lower COP; (2) size and complexity; and (3) expense. 18. The regenerative heat exchange is effected in a series (rather than a parallel) configuration.

Whereas the vapor pressure curve of ammonia forces ammonia–water absorption chillers to operate at relatively high pressures that may constitute a safety problem, LiBr–water chillers run under partial vacuum. Absorption devices have exhibited long lifetimes and excellent partload behavior. The common working pairs of LiBr–water and ammonia– water are non-ozone-depleting and non-global warming chemicals, in contrast to standard refrigerants in mechanical chillers. The major limitations of absorption machines, relative to their mechanical counterparts, are restricted temperature ranges and relatively high initial costs.

Namely, the heat transformer delivers its useful effect (at the absorber) at a higher temperature than that of the heat input. C2. Working pairs (refrigerant solutions) and practical considerations The two most widely used absorption systems are: (1) water (refrigerant)–lithium bromide (LiBr); and (2) ammonia (refrigerant)–water. The LiBr–water combination is limited to installations where the minimum refrigerant temperature is above the freezing point of water (0°C). Furthermore, the LiBr–water solution must not be allowed to cool below about 5°C lest it freeze and irreparably damage the unit.

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