By Jeffrey M. Gordon
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Additional info for Cool thermodynamics : the engineering and physics of predictive, diagnostic and optimization methods for cooling systems
The big advantage of absorption systems is that a liquid is compressed instead of a vapor. Hence compression work is negligible in absorption systems, whereas it is typically 20–50% of the rated cooling capacity in vapor-compression devices. The nominal virtues of heatdriven systems (as opposed to mechanical work-driven systems) are offset, however, by: (1) a markedly lower COP; (2) size and complexity; and (3) expense. 18. The regenerative heat exchange is effected in a series (rather than a parallel) configuration.
Whereas the vapor pressure curve of ammonia forces ammonia–water absorption chillers to operate at relatively high pressures that may constitute a safety problem, LiBr–water chillers run under partial vacuum. Absorption devices have exhibited long lifetimes and excellent partload behavior. The common working pairs of LiBr–water and ammonia– water are non-ozone-depleting and non-global warming chemicals, in contrast to standard refrigerants in mechanical chillers. The major limitations of absorption machines, relative to their mechanical counterparts, are restricted temperature ranges and relatively high initial costs.
Namely, the heat transformer delivers its useful effect (at the absorber) at a higher temperature than that of the heat input. C2. Working pairs (refrigerant solutions) and practical considerations The two most widely used absorption systems are: (1) water (refrigerant)–lithium bromide (LiBr); and (2) ammonia (refrigerant)–water. The LiBr–water combination is limited to installations where the minimum refrigerant temperature is above the freezing point of water (0°C). Furthermore, the LiBr–water solution must not be allowed to cool below about 5°C lest it freeze and irreparably damage the unit.