By American Society of Metals
This ebook deals a set of ASM guide articles on how engineering plastics are characterised by way of homes and function. It ways the topic of characterization from a basic perspective of engineering layout, fabrics choice, and failure research. the 1st part int
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Additional info for Characterization and Failure Analysis of Plastics
Because aromatic ethers have a resonating system that includes the two electron pairs from the oxygen, the larger extended structure is stabilized through resonance. This contributes to the high thermal stability and high heat-distortion temperatures of engineering plastics such as polysulfones (PSUs) and polyether ketones (PEKs). In contrast, the bond of a hydrogen to an atom adjacent to the oxygen in an aliphatic ether (referred to as the α-hydrogen) is destabilized in the presence of the oxygen.
In contrast, semicrystalline polymers exhibit both a Tg and a Tm. At this latter temperature, the ordered crystalline regions melt and become disordered random coils. While the magnitude of the Tg of a polymer depends only on the inherent flexibility of the polymer chain, the magnitude of Tm is also a function of the attractive forces between chains. Although the degree of crystallinity in a given polymer varies with the processing conditions, the maximum degree of crystallinity depends on the polymer structure.
Formaldehyde Phenol-formaldehyde + Phenolic Phenolic Water (byproduct) (a) (b) =H Fig. 21 =C =O Structure of a phenol formaldehyde. (a) Two phenol rings join with a formaldehyde molecule to form a linear chain polymer and molecular by-product. (b) Excess formaldehyde results in the formation of a network, thermosetting polymer due to cross linking. Source: Ref 4 Moldings of both melamines and ureas swell and shrink slightly in varying moisture conditions. Baking molded parts accelerates postmold shrinkage and improves dimensional stability.