Britain, the United States and the Mediterranean War, by Matthew Jones

By Matthew Jones

An exam of the controversies and disputes produced among Britain and the USA via their joint involvement within the Mediterranean theatre throughout the moment global struggle. research of the evolution of Allied procedure towards the Mediterranean is placed along a attention of the behavior of army campaigns and the command buildings that observed them. The political tensions permeating Anglo-American kin, and the real function performed right here by means of Harold Macmillan, also are mentioned to supply an entire photograph of the issues confronted by way of the alliance.

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The Prime Minister insisted 30 Britain. the United States and the Mediterranean War that a landing at Algiers should be preserved. while being prepared to forgo landings further to the east. Roosevelt wanted to play up the American role in 'Torch', for domestic political reasons but also to create conditions where French resistance would be less likely, and he indicated that extra shipping for Algiers might be found. Churchill clinched agreement in early September by allowing the Americans to take the lead in all political aspects of 'Torch' (and their troops to spearhead the landings), while the resources necessary for an Algiers landing were prized from the US Navy and through a weakening of the Casablanca attack.

Therefore we must play the full partnership game. 89 No better test of how well, or badly, the 'partnership game' could be played, over a whole range of military, command and political issues, would be provided by the campaigns in the Mediterranean that Operation 'Torch' eventually set in train. 2 Strategy and Command, from 'Torch' to the Sicilian Campaign, 1942-43 THE CREATION OF ALLIED FORCE HEADQUARTERS This chapter examines the relationship between the development of Anglo-American strategic decision-making and the growing commitment to the Mediterranean over 1942-43, and the establishment and early performance of an integrated command structure in the theatre itself.

As Jacob wrote at the time, What was completely lacking in the American party was any kind of staff who could tackle the problems that were bound to arise in the course of the conversations, and to produce detailed solutions Strategy and Command, from 'Torch' to Sicily 45 for the Chiefs of Staff. When the US Chiefs saw how the land lay and the size of our party, they suddenly woke up to the fact that they had left most of their clubs behind. 57 Despite the fact that at future conferences the Americans were to arrive with full back-up and having reached a coordinated position before facing the British (though they still had problems with Roosevelt), this did not dim the impression created by the first full meeting of the CCS since its formation at the beginning of 1942.

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