Biological Investigations: Form, Function, Diversity and by Warren D Dolphin

By Warren D Dolphin

This lab handbook is for a one or two-semester majors point common biology lab and will be used with any majors-level basic biology textbook. The labs are investigative and ask scholars to take advantage of extra serious considering and hands-on studying. the writer emphasizes investigative, quantitative, and comparative ways to learning the lifestyles sciences.

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You must recalibrate at each new wavelength. Before the light-absorbing properties of a solution can be measured, three adjustments on the spectrophotometer are necessary. First, the diffraction grating must be adjusted so that the desired color of light passes through the slit. This is usually the color of light that is best absorbed by the compound under consideration. Second, the output of the phototube must be adjusted or calibrated to correct for drift in the electronic circuit. Third, a compensation must be made for dirt or contaminating colored material in the light path between the source and the detector.

4 5. Quantitative Techniques and Statistics Schematic drawing of the path of light through a spectrophotometer. the first category. Sequentially add this value to the upper limit of each category to define the intervals for all categories. Record these values below. 1 fall into each category and record the frequencies above. Use this data to construct a bar graph in which the x-axis is the category and the y-axis is the frequency of occurrence in the data set. Label all axes and indicate the scale.

6 Standard curve of the absorbances of known dye concentrations. First, the absorbances of four known concentrations of dye are measured and plotted to make a graph. Then the absorbance of an unknown concentration is measured. The graph is used to find the concentration of dye that would give the measured absorbance. If the absorbance scale is used, the measurement equation is somewhat more involved. Instead of measuring the amount of light transmitted by the solution, the spectrophotometer reads the amount of light absorbed and converts this measurement into absorbance (A) units described by the following equation: 1 A(absorbance) = log10    T An example may help to clarify the relationship between transmittance and absorbance.

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