By Kathleen M. Swaim
Before and After the Fall explores for the 1st time that substantially various ideas and epistemologies that govern the unfallen and fallen universes in Paradise Lost. From Kathleen Swaim's specified examinations of the visits and directions of the angelic messengers Raphael and Michael emerges a brand new knowing of the contrasting mental and religious stipulations sooner than and after the autumn. The ebook provides an in-depth comparability of the pedagogy, good judgment, poetics, and college psychology of the 2 archangels in the context of Milton's prose works, specifically his textbook The artwork of Logic, his pamphlet Of Education, and his theological treatise Christian Doctrine. simply because Milton intentionally deployed Raphael and Michael for reasons of such distinction, Swaim's thorough exam of the content material and purpose of those significant characters the six books of Paradise Lost within which they seem permits her to supply new views typically epic's layout and subject matters.
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Extra resources for Before and after the fall: contrasting modes in Paradise lost
All too often, however, in trying all things in order to embrace that which is good and true as Saint Paul recommended, the innocent encounter and are shocked and repelled by the evil and false. Reaction to such betrayals is withdrawal; thus, increasing awareness creates scars and multiplies fortifications. As these accumulate, human beings are in danger of sacrificing affirmation and hope to withdrawal and fear, of abandoning all risks in favor of self-defense and of thus turning against their own vital growth and becoming absorbed in their own wounds and enslaved by their own pasts.
Before and after the fall. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Milton, John, 16081674. Paradise lost. 2. Fall of man in literature. 3. Angels in literature. 4. Theology in literature. I. Title. 485-28925 ISBN 0-87023-504-4 This publication has been supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities, a federal agency which supports the study of such fields as history, philosophy, literature, and language. Page v FOR MY PARENTS Page vii Contents Preface ix Introduction 1 Chapter 1 Lapsarian Structures 26 Chapter 2 Lapsarian Imagery 47 Chapter 3 Lapsarian Logic 91 Chapter 4 Lapsarian Poetics 159 Chapter 5 Widening Perspectives 215 Notes 239 Bibliography of Works Cited 273 Index 287 Page ix Preface My starting point is a proposition about which there can be no disagreement: that Paradise Lost is about the fall and its antecedents and consequences and that the fall in Milton's epic makes a radical difference to humanity, to the physical universe, to human perception and communication, and to the relationship of humanity and God.
In At a Solemn Music Milton looks forward to a return to the prelapsarian condition, contrasting it with present fallen realities in these terms: That we on Earth with undiscording voice May rightly answer that melodious noise; As once we did, till disproportion'd sin Jarr'd against nature's chime, and with harsh din Broke the fair music that all creatures made To their great Lord, whose love their motion sway'd In perfect Diapason, whilst they stood In first obedience and their state of good. (1724) The terms fall and lapse presuppose a standard from which one has been separated downward, and in this early lyric Milton identifies that standard as perfectly unified, harmonious, and naturally continuous and celebratory of the divine toward which the creation aspires.