By Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
The most recent ebook from Cengage studying on Atkinson & Hilgard's advent to Psychology
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Extra info for Atkinson & Hilgard's Introduction to Psychology
Unlike the nineteenth-century version, however, the contemporary cognitive approach is not based on introspection. Instead, it assumes that (1) only by studying mental processes can we fully understand what organisms do, and (2) we can study mental processes in an objective fashion by focusing on specific behaviors (just as behaviorists do) but interpreting them in terms of underlying mental processes. In making these interpretations, cognitive psychologists have often relied on an analogy between the mind and a computer.
The first experimental laboratory in psychology was established by Wilhelm Wundt at the University of Leipzig in 1879. l Among the early ‘schools’ of psychology in the twentieth century were structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, Gestalt psychology, and psychoanalysis. l Later developments in twentieth-century psychology included information-processing theory, psycholinguistics, and neuropsychology. CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS 1 What assumptions about human nature underlie the various historical approaches to psychology?
Rather, they must have a way of directing their efforts to relevant groups of brain cells. Psychological findings can supply this direction. For example, psychological research indicates that our ability to discriminate among spoken words and our ability to discriminate among spatial positions obey different principles. So, biological psychologists might look in different regions of the brain for the neural basis of these two kinds of discrimination capacities (the left hemisphere for word discrimination and the right hemisphere for spatial-position discrimination).