By Jeremy Bentham
Based at the assumption that people search excitement and steer clear of discomfort, Bentham's utilitarian point of view types a consultant to ethical decision-making. With the "greatest happiness of the best quantity" as his goal, the writer makes an attempt to spot the resources and sorts of excitement and soreness in addition to the ways that they are often measured in assessing ethical ideas. issues of intentionality, cognizance, reasons, and inclinations aid Bentham's arguments. The textual content concludes together with his survey of objective and the function of legislations and jurisprudence, a desirable workout within the idea of social reform that explores conflicts among the pursuits of the bulk and person freedom.
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Additional info for An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
2. The circumstance of strength, though in point of causality closely connected with that of health, is perfectly distinguishable from 44/Jeremy Bentham it. The same man will indeed generally be stronger in a good state of health than in a bad one. But one man, even in a bad state of health, may be stronger than another even in a good one. Weakness is a common concomitant of disease: but in consequence of his radical frame of body, a man may be weak all his life long, without experiencing any disease.
It operates, however, as an indication more or less conclusive, with respect to several other circumstances. With respect to some, scarcely but through the medium of the two just mentioned: this is the case with regard to the quantum and bias of a man’s moral, sympathetic, and antipathetic sensibility: perhaps in some cases with regard to quantity and quality of knowledge, strength of intellectual powers, and bent of inclination. With respect to others, it may operate immediately of itself: this seems to be the case with regard to a man’s habitual occupations, pecuniary circumstances, and connexions in the way of sympathy and antipathy.
It is to be observed, that sympathy itself multiplies the sources of antipathy. Sympathy for your friend gives birth to antipathy on your part against all those who are objects of antipathy, as well as to sympathy for those who are objects of sympathy to him. In the same manner does antipathy multiply the sources of sympathy; though commonly perhaps with rather a less degree of efficacy. Antipathy against your enemy is apt to give birth to sympathy on your part towards those who are objects of antipathy, as well as to Principles of Morals and Legislation/51 antipathy against those who are objects of sympathy, to him.