An Introduction to social psychology by William McDougall

By William McDougall

Excerpt from An advent to Social Psychology

Since this quantity is designed to advertise this modification of perform, it's becoming that it may Open with a quick inquiry into the factors of the anomalous scenario at this time acquiring and with a few indication of ways during which it really is was hoping that the switch will be led to. For there should be absolute confidence that the shortcoming of functional acceptance of psychology by way of the staff within the social sciences has been typically because of its deficiencies, and that the one method of building it in its precise position is to make reliable those deficiencies. What, then, are those deficiencies, and why have they goodbye persevered? We could test very briefly to point the solutions to those questions with no presuming to apportion any blame for the lengthy continuance of those deficiencies among the professed psychologists and the staff within the social.

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This quantity was named in 1854 by Clausius who called it the entropy and since then it has led to 49 PROBABILITY ENTERS PHYSICS [Ch. Ill a good deal of evasion by textbook writers and even more misinterpretation by others. " However, Maxwell's and Boltzmann's ingeneous adaptation of the laws of chance to particle mechanics has opened a way to visualize entropy and the necessity that entropy must increase in random processes. Entropy essentially measures the degree of disorder in a physical system and it is not difficult to see from a few examples that this disorder will increase in any operation which does not involve individual selection.

It is clear that even—or perhaps especially—at this point an extensive range of philosophical problems is hidden about which one could talk almost ad infinitum. Let us assume that we know what we mean by the term "physical data". The construction of a physical theory then consists of finding a model which will produce the same set of data if subjected to the same experimental procedure. We must note, first of all, that in com31 Q U A N T U M NATURE OF MATTER [Ch. Π paring experimental data with theoretical predictions we have made the tacit assumption that physical phenomena are reproducible, that is, that the same experiment repeated under identical circumstances on an identical substance will produce the same experimental data.

This was in the same year experimentally confirmed by Davisson and Germer in the United States and G. P. Thomson in Aberdeen, who demonstrated that electrons shewed the same diffraction and reflexion patterns as light with a wavelength equal to the one predicted by de Broglie. If we combine this evidence with the cloud chamber evidence that electrons are point particles, we have once again a dualistic behaviour. The way in which this dualism is usually expressed is through the Heisenberg relations which state in effect that one cannot assign to an electron simultaneously a well-defined velocity and a well-defined localisation.

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