By Dougal Drysdale(auth.)
Chapter 1 fireplace technology and Combustion (pages 1–34):
Chapter 2 warmth move (pages 35–82):
Chapter three Limits of Flammability and Premixed Flames (pages 83–119):
Chapter four Diffusion Flames and fireplace Plumes (pages 121–179):
Chapter five regular Burning of beverages and Solids (pages 181–223):
Chapter 6 Ignition: The Initiation of Flaming Combustion (pages 225–275):
Chapter 7 unfold of Flame (pages 277–315):
Chapter eight Spontaneous Ignition inside Solids and Smouldering Combustion (pages 317–348):
Chapter nine The Pre?Flashover Compartment fireplace (pages 349–386):
Chapter 10 The Post?Flashover Compartment fireplace (pages 387–439):
Chapter eleven Smoke: Its Formation, Composition and circulation (pages 441–474):
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Extra info for An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, Third Edition
18, the final (adiabatic) flame temperature can be shown to be 1228◦ C (1501 K), well below that at which the effect of dissociation is significant. 20). There is evidence to suggest that the same value also applies to the upper flammability (fuel-rich) limit (Mullins and Penner, 1959; Stull, 1971), but it cannot be derived by the same method as the lower limit because the products will contain a complex mixture of pyrolysis and partially oxidized products from the parent fuel. It should be noted that the temperature increases reported above will be accompanied by expansion of the gases.
5 kJ/mol. The negative sign indicates that the product (CO2 ) is a more stable chemical configuration than the reactant elements in their standard states, which are assigned heats of formation of zero. If the heats of formation of the reactants and products of any chemical reaction are known, the total enthalpy change can be calculated. 20) in which Hf (O2 ) = 0 (by definition). This incorporates Hess’ ‘law of constant heat summation’, which states that the change in enthalpy depends only on the initial and final states of the system and is independent of the intermediate steps.
Conduction is the mode of heat transfer associated with solids. Although it also occurs in fluids, it is normally masked by convective motion in which heat is dissipated by a mixing process driven by buoyancy. 1) x. 2) where q˙x = (dqx /dt)/A, A being the area (perpendicular to the x-direction) through which heat is being transferred. This is known as Fourier’s law of heat conduction. The constant k is the thermal conductivity and has units of W/m·K when q˙ is in W/m2 , T is in ◦ C (or K), and x is in m.