By Jørn Olsen, Kaare Christensen, Jeff Murray, Anders Ekbom
An creation to Epidemiology for future health Professionals
Jorn Olsen, Kaare Christensen, Jeff Murray, and Anders Ekbom
Who will get unwell? What factors—genetic, environmental, social—contribute to their illness?
Easy adequate to invite, however the solutions have gotten more and more complex. at the present time, because the public concerns approximately rising illnesses and the note epidemic is a part of the overall dialogue, epidemiology can be a uncomplicated component to scientific education, but usually it's undertaught or maybe missed. Concise and readable whereas additionally rigorous and thorough, An creation to Epidemiology for overall healthiness Professionals is going past commonplace textbook content material to floor the reader in medical tools so much proper to the present healthiness panorama and the evolution of evidence-based medicine—valuable keys to raised figuring out of illness strategy, powerful prevention, and certain therapy. This volume:
- Presents fabric accessibly for readers who could have now not studied epidemiology.
- Focuses both in descriptive and analytic branches of epidemiology.
- Demonstrates functions of descriptive and analytic tools in public overall healthiness, genetic epidemiology, and medical epidemiology.
- Includes a "Sources of mistakes" part addressing difficulties in inference and decision-making, choice bias, and different universal pitfalls.
In addition to its usefulness for graduate scholars in public future health and scientific scholars in medical epidemiology, An creation to Epidemiology for future health Professionals is a well timed reference for practitioners desiring a refresher during this very important self-discipline.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Epidemiology for Health Professionals
Among children with asthma you would expect an association between these genetic factors and SES according to this diagram. Good social conditions may lead to asthma as well as certain genetic factors; therefore these two variables become associated in children with asthma (and to a lesser extent in children without asthma). An intermediate factor is in the causal pathway from the exposure to the end point under study and should not be controlled in the analysis. The causal links between a high fat diet and coronary heart diseases (CHD) could be like this: High fat diet → high se-cholesterol → CHD Including se-cholesterol would eliminate the caused association we take an interest in.
Technology allows the assay of anywhere from one to one million of these per person very cost effectively. The second common form of variation is CNVs or copy number variants where long segments of DNA may be present in zero to many copies. When these segments include genes they can result in the absence of a gene product (if both parents contribute zero copies) to a many-fold increase above the average amount of gene product if multiple gene copies are present. CNVs, while clearly of great biological importance, present more challenges in analysis and are less well characterized than SNPs as of this writing and so we will use SNPs in most examples to follow.
Part of the reason for a variation could be a difference in genetic causes, but studies also show a large variation between similar ethnic groups or within an ethnic group where one part migrates from one country to another. For example, Japanese people have low incidence rates of colon cancer in Japan, but these rates increase after some time for those who move to high-risk areas, such as the USA. Rapid changes over time within the same population are usually not driven by genetic factors, although they could have a genetic component such as gene expressions depending on environmental exposures.