Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy by K. Siegbahn

By K. Siegbahn

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N e l s o n , Phys. R e v . 9 1 (1953) 8 6 4 ; J. M . Valentine a n d S. C . Curran, Phil. 43 M a g . 4 3 (1952) 9 6 4 . 44 F . L. Hereford, Phys. R e v . 7 4 (1948) 574. 45 C. T. R. Wilson, Proc. R o y . S o c . A 1 0 4 (1923) 192. 46 J. Ovadia a n d J. S. Laughlin, Phys. R e v . 8 8 (1952) 165. D . R. C o r s o n and R. B . Brode, Phys. R e v . 5 3 (1938) 7 7 3 . CH. I Fig. 19. INTERACTION OF ELECTRONS 19 A l u m i n u m absorption curves for various electron energies. The curves are normalized at the practical range R .

Schepers, A n n . Phys. 8 (1961) 2 7 0 . G. KNOP AND W. PAUL 26 CH. I TABLE 7 61 number of electrons per a t o m . The mean excitation energy / of various gases. 7 3 8 1 Fig. 2 7 . The correction term C K due to the inefficiency of K-electrons. The parameter η- 63 is defined by (11a) while S is a function of Ζ only as s h o w n in the inset graph. F r o m W a l s k e 27 INTERACTION OF α-Ρ ARTICLES CH. I 26 263 Bethe and coworkers ' * have derived a correction term CK for the inefficiency of K-electrons which gives for the stopping number 2 2mv B = Z\n—i C K.

However, the 1 22 2the results of Hulme et α/. and 1 2it2 has been used values it gave joined smoothly with in obtaining tables of values » . Sauter's eq. (13) was f o u n d ' to join more smoothly with those of Hulme et al. if multiplied by the Stobbe factor, eq. (12). So the tables of values available until now* have been based primarily on the theoretical values of Hulme et al. at intermediate energies; on Hall's equation at high energies; and at lower energies, on Sauter's equation multiplied by the Stobbe factor, for low Z, on the non-relativistic equation multiplied by the Stobbe factor for higher Z, and on curves of interpolation joining the results of these equations with the results of Hulme et al.

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