Advances in optical and electron microscopy by Tom Mulvey, Charles J.R. Sheppard

By Tom Mulvey, Charles J.R. Sheppard

The volumes during this sequence conceal the growth and innovation in optical and electron microscopy at a basic point. it really is geared toward microscopists and researchers not just drawn to microscope instrumentation but in addition in purposes starting from organic options to fabrics learn and commercial inspection

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The microscopist has then got all the information about the object structure that is available from the elastically scattered electrons; it only remains to determine the underlying object structure, for example, by simulation methods. It should be noted that this procedure holds even in the more general case of non-isoplanatic imaging. However, in a conventional electron microscope, which records the intensity distribution I(r) = b(r)bcc(r) = Λ2(τ), only the square of the amplitude is recorded while the phase Φ(Γ) is lost; here bcc(r) is the complex conjugate of b(r).

LICHTE 30 focal plane as a function of R is called the wave aberration x(R). Consequently, the aberrations have the effect of a phase shifting plate, given by #(R), that is added to the action of the assumed ideal lens. 50Dz(R/k)2) (11) The corresponding phase contrast transfer function PCTF(R) = 2 sin(#(R)) (Fig. 3) indicates that for example such an electron microscope can be used for phase contrast microscopy only in the spatial frequency range between R = l n m " 1 and R = 3 nm~ *. Since spatial frequencies smaller than l n m " 1 are strongly damped, slowly varying phase structures would hardly be visible in the image: This lack of large area phase contrast considerably hampers the investigation of biological specimens, hence the practice arose of staining with heavy metal salts to convert the phase structure into a highly visible amplitude structure.

Hence the image wave b(r) = ^(r)exp(iO(r)) is considered to correspond completely to the object wave o(r) = a(r)exp(i0(r)) in amplitude and phase. H. LICHTE 34 A. Taking the electron hologram Image plane off-axis electron holograms are recorded in an electron microscope equipped with a Möllenstedt-type electron biprism (Möllenstedt and Düker, 1956) inserted between the back focal plane and the intermediate image plane of the objective lens, as shown in Fig. 5. The object under investigation is so positioned that it covers only one half of the object plane while the remainder allows free passage for the reference wave.

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