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Extra resources for A geography of case semantics: the Czech dative and the Russian instrumental
16. 17. Instrument Object in Action Sentences Body Part Object in Reflexive Action Sentences Emotions Inexplicable Force Agent in Passive Sentences Matter in Action Sentences Matter in Process Sentences Comparison Manner Space Time Duration Transport Personal Characteristics Predicate Figure 7. Wierzbicka's network 36 Although Deserieva (1974 & 1977) also fails to provide networks for cases, her discussion of them as "semantic fields" is even more suggestive of this sort of structure. She concludes (1977: 60) that the basis for any description of a grammatical category lies in the structure of the semantic field it commands, and that special attention must be paid to the semantic center of a category.
Thus the relationships which structure case categories are arranged hierarchically, such that each successive type produces local variations on the resultsof morebasictypesof variation. Governed case in the cognitive model As Smith's work suggests, governed case (specifically the dative governed by verbs) is not to be dismissed as a mere syntactic phenomenon, for it is part of the semantic whole represented by the network of a given case. Indeed, it would be contrary to the spirit of cognitive semantics to leave any uses of case out of the scope of the description, since this would imply that they have no semantic role, that part of their network is defective, void.
Predicate Object Group or Formation Space Time Integral Part Delimitation Cause Other Concrete Means PseudoComitative Figure 6. Mrazek's network Wierzbicka (1980) also produced a list of meanings for the Russian instrumental and claimed that they were all related to each other because they shared similar statements in the semantic metalanguage of their definitions. Wierzbicka does not make the system of relationships explicit either, but, like Mrazek, she leaves enough clues for a network to be derived.