2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (SI Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and

By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers

This guide covers the refrigeration apparatus and platforms for purposes except human convenience. This booklet comprises info on cooling, freezing, and storing meals; commercial functions of refrigeration; and low-temperature refrigeration. essentially a reference for the training engineer, this quantity is additionally important for a person all for cooling and garage of foodstuff items. This variation contains new chapters. bankruptcy three, Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration platforms, describes the heritage of this "natural refrigerant" and why it's the topic of renewed curiosity at the present time. The bankruptcy comprises dialogue and diagrams on CO2 refrigerant purposes, method layout, apparatus, security, lubricants, commissioning, operation, and upkeep. bankruptcy 50, Terminology of Refrigeration, lists the various universal phrases utilized in business refrigeration platforms, really platforms utilizing ammonia because the refrigerant.

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EVAPORATOR DESIGN Considerations There is an ideal refrigerant feed and flow system for each evaporator design and arrangement. An evaporator designed for gravityflooded operation cannot always be converted to an overfeed arrangement, and vice versa; neither can systems always be designed to circulate the optimum flow rate. When top feed is used to ensure good distribution, a minimum quantity per circuit must be circulated, generally about 30 mL/s. In bottom-feed evaporators, distribution is less critical than in top or horizontal feed because each circuit fills with liquid to equal the pressure loss in other parallel circuits.

This does not apply to halocarbons because of the greater liquid volume circulated as a result of fluid characteristics. Conventional multiple-outlet distributors with capillary tubes of the type usually paired with thermostatic expansion valves have been used successfully in liquid overfeed systems. Capillary tubes may be installed downstream of a distributor with oversized orifices to achieve the required pressure reduction and efficient distribution. Existing gravity-flooded evaporators with accumulators can be connected to liquid overfeed systems.

Pumps sometimes have cavitation problems caused by low available net positive suction pressure. Advantages and Disadvantages The main advantages of liquid overfeed systems are high system efficiency and reduced operating expenses. These systems have lower energy cost and fewer operating hours because Generally, the more evaporators used, the more favorable the initial costs for liquid overfeed compared to a gravity recirculated or flooded system (Scotland 1970). Liquid overfeed systems compare favorably with thermostatic valve feed systems for the same reason.

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